Study and Interpretation of the Chemical Characteristics of Natural Water
The chemical composition of natural water is derived from many different sources of solutes, including gases and aerosols from the atmosphere, weathering and erosion of rocks and soil, solution or precipitation reactions occurring below the land surface, and cultural effects resulting from human activities. Broad interrelationships among these processes and their effects can be discerned by application of principles of chemical thermodynamics. Some of the processes of solution or precipitation of minerals can be closely evaluated by means of principles of chemical equilibrium, including the law of mass action and the Nernst equation. Other processes are irreversible and require consideration of reaction mechanisms and rates. The chemical composition of the crustal rocks of the Earth and the composition of the ocean and the atmosphere are significant in evaluating sources of solutes in natural freshwater.
Hem, J.D. 1985. Study and Interpretation of the Chemical Characteristics of Natural Water. U.S. Geological Survey Water-Supply Paper No. 2254, 3rd Edition.
Email Address Created for Land Exchange Questions
The Southwestern Region Office of Lands and Minerals Management is overseeing and administering the land exchange and appraisal process which includes the 2,422-acre Oak Flat Federal Parcel. All questions about the land exchange and appraisal process should be emailed to SM.FS.email@example.com
Programmatic Agreement Info
To comply with Section 106 of the National Historic Preservation Act, the Tonto National Forest developed a Programmatic Agreement (PA) and included it in Volume 5, Appendix O of the final EIS. The PA was created in cooperation with the Advisory Council on Historic Preservation, the State Historic Preservation Office, tribes and other consulting parties. The PA contains an agreed upon process for identifying, evaluating and addressing adverse effects to historic properties associated with this undertaking.
To review Volume 5 and the PA, Download Vol 5 PDF, 27 MB.