H. Bolton Seed

Several methods for evaluating the effect of local soil conditions on ground response during earthquakes are presently available. Most of these methods are based on the assumption that the main responses in a soil deposit are caused by the upward propagation of shear waves from the underlying rock formation.

In many cases the ground motions developed near the surface of a soil deposit during an earthquake may be attributed primarily to the upward propagation of shear waves from an underlying rock formation. If the ground surface, the rock surface, or the boundaries between different soil layers are inclined, analyses of the response of the soil deposit can be made only by techniques such as the finite-element method.

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