USDA Forest Service

The documents listed below were authored by the USDA Forest Service.

Evaluations of efficiency are one of the basic types of economic and social analysis and are an integral part of the planning process at the national, regional, and National Forest levels. Economic efficiency evaluations are required for project selection, functional planning, integrated planning, and budget preparation (FSM 1970.3).

The American people are concerned about the quality of their visual environment. Because of this concern, it has become appropriate to establish the "visual landscape" as a basic resource, to be "treated as an essential part of and receive equal consideration with the other basic resources of the land" (FSM 2380).

Sonoran scrub oak grows in semiarid, lower elevation chaparral, pinyon-juniper (Pinus-Juniperus spp.), shrub deserts, oak woodlands, ponderosa pine (P. ponderosa) and riparian communities of the Southwest.

The abundance of tamarisk (Tamarix ramosissima and related species) along the San Pedro and Gila River flood plains varies with differences in stream flow regimes.

Predicting the potential behavior and effects of wildland fire is an essential task in fire management. Mathematical surface fire behavior and fire effects models and prediction systems are driven in part by fuelbed inputs such as load, bulk density, fuel particle size, heat content, and moisture of extinction.

This document shows, by phase, where the 2012 Rule specifies public participation, outreach, and collaboration with minority and low-income populations, referred to collectively in this document as “environmental justice populations.”

Creosote bush occurs throughout the Mojave, Sonoran, and Chihuahuan deserts.

This action is necessary to ensure that National Forest System roads provide for public uses of National Forest System lands; provide for safe public access and travel; allow for economical and efficient management; to the extent practicable, begin to reverse adverse ecological impacts associated with roads; and meet all other current and future land and resource management objectives.

Establishes new authority sections that include a cross-reference to FSM 5430.1 and lists additional laws, executive orders, and departmental regulations applicable to land exchanges.


Comments from each of the six public hearings are available for viewing. Note that the public comment period is now closed.

Public Hearing Comments

Draft EIS

The draft EIS public comment period closed November 7, 2019. All 30,000+ comment submittals are now under review for consideration in the compilation of the final EIS.

Media & General Info

Point of Contact
John Scaggs
Tonto National Forest

Apache Leap Special Management Area
Apache Leap SMA website