The smallest geomorphic offsets along a 35 km section of the San Andreas fault in the Carrizo Plain vary from 7 to 10 m. Our three-dimensional excavation of alluvial deposits a few km southeast of Wallace Creek confirms that at least 6.6 to 6.9 m of dextral slip occurred there during the latest large earthquake, in 1857.
Two monuments from an 1855 cadastral survey that span the San Andreas fault in the Carrizo Plain have been right-laterally displaced 11.0 ± 2.5 m by the 1857 Fort Tejon earthquake and associated seismicity and afterslip. This measurement confirms that at least 9.5 ± 0.5 m of slip occurred along the main fault trace, as suggested by measurements of offset channels near Wallace Creek.
The study area is situated along the southern edge of the Superstition Mountains approximately 40 miles east of the greater Phoenix metropolitan area (Figure 1). Geology is dominated by mid-Tertiary volcanic rocks of the Superior volcanic field (Ransome, 1903), and these rocks depostionally overlie a crystalline basement of early Proterozoic Pinal Schist intruded by middle Proterozoic granitoids. In some areas a relatively thin sequence of the Middle Proterozoic Apache Group occurs along the contact between these two rock types.
Here we are concerned with solving for the long term average values of these parameters for the state of California. My primary data source is a catalog of 1850-2006 M 4.0 seismicity compiled with Tianqing Cao (Appendix H). Because earthquakes outside of the state can influence California I consider both earthquakes within the state and within 100 km of the state border (Figure 1).
The maximum background earthquake (MBE) is the largest earthquake not associated with significant primary surface rupture. The MBE is estimated for the Basin and Range province considering 22 earthquakes from the province and a simple physical model of a circular rupture in the seismogenic zone.
This paper introduces a method for the evaluation of the seismic risk at the site of an engineering project. The results are in terms of a ground motion parameter (such as peak acceleration) versus average return period. The method incorporates the influence of all potential sources of earthquakes and the average activity rates assigned to them.
We present a model for estimating horizontal ground motion amplitudes caused by shallow crustal earthquakes occurring in active tectonic environments. The model provides predictive relationships for the orientation independent average horizontal component of ground motions. Relationships are provided for peak acceleration, peak velocity, and 5-percent damped pseudo-spectral acceleration for spectral periods of 0.01 to 10 seconds. The model represents an update of the relationships developed by Sadigh et al.
These maps show an estimate of the likelihood of earthquake ground motions, based on a probabilistic seismic hazard analysis. Such analysis incorporates seismic and geologic information to consider the probability of all possible damaging earthquakes, calculates the potential range of ground motions for each potential earthquake, and arrives at a level of ground shaking that has a given probability, using the formulation first developed by Cornell (1968).